Citrine is a macrocrystalline variety of quartz. It takes its name from the French word "citrin" which means "lemon". It is the most commonly used variety in jewelry where it is confused with topaz because of its color. Sometimes of considerable size, most of this mineral comes from the deposits of Brazil where it is very abundant and in various shades of color. Citrine quartz has a highly variable color: from a pale yellow to a yellow-white wine, golden yellow, reddish orange yellow, brown yellow, sometimes slightly smoked. The coloring is presumed to be caused by iron oxides (hematite) in the form of ferric hydroxide (goethite). Heating produces significant effects on citrine quartz: the action of heat destroys the coloring of the citrine that becomes colorless. Various and very beautiful shades of yellow are obtained by heating amethyst and smoky quartz. The citrine variety Madeira, in fact, is nothing but a clear, almost colorless smoky quartz from the Sierra Morena, which has become a magnificent yellow-brown color and fiery brown-red through burning. The specimens, especially of significant weight, are well appreciated.
In addition to Brazil, as regards production quantity and quality, important deposits are those of Madagascar, the Spanish deposits of Hinojosa del Duero in the province of Cordoba and those of Villas Buenas and Villa Seco in the province of Salamanca.
With healthful powers of exceptional importance, citrine quartz, according to crystal healing, brings lightness, good humor and cheerfulness.